Verb

Verb is the word that shows some action or some work. In some cases verb doesn’t show action this is called copulative verb, as; in “I am teacher” am is copulative verb here.

Examples: running, come, going, swim etc.

In the example every word indicates action, hence verbs.

Forms of the verb
Verb has six kinds.

Examples

  1. Present form
  2. Past form
  3. Past Participle form
  4. Present Participle form
  5. Base form
  6. 3rd Person Singular form

Three forms are tense (time) related (tensed forms) whereas three are related to the manner of action (aspect forms)

Tensed forms
Tensed forms, as indicated are the forms of the verb which are related to the time. It means that they tell us about the present and past time. Present, Past and 3rd Person Singular forms are tensed forms, because by them we can guess whether the time is present or past.

Examples

  1. He signs the document. (Present-3rd person singular form)
  2. He signed the document. (Past-Past form)
  3. I sing the document. (Present-Present form)

If you concentrate the time is only indicated by the verb, there is no other thing that indicates it, and hence the verbs are tensed forms.

Aspect forms
These are the verb form that don’t relate to the time, rather they are related to the manner of verbal action. It means that they tell us whether work is completed or in progress.

Examples

  1. He is writing an essay. (Present Participle form, means that writing is in progress.
  2. He has written as essay. (Past Participle form, means that writing is completed)

Thus two forms are aspect forms and they are Present Participle and Past Participle.

Regular and Irregular verbs
There are two types of verbs with respect to converting them into other forms. One is called regular verbs and the other is irregular verbs.

Regular Verbs
Regular verbs are those which pronunciation is not changed while converting them into other forms and they have one particular method of conversion. For example, -ed is added with past and past participle forms.

Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs are those verbs which pronunciation is changed while conversion and they don’t have any particular method of conversion too.

Examples of Regular

Present 3rd Person singular Past Present Participle Past Participle Base form
Store Stores Stored Stored Storing To store
Eat Eats Ate Eaten Eating To eat

Examples of Irregular Verbs

Present 3rd Person singular Past Present Participle Past Participle Base form
Go Goes Went Gone Going To go
See Sees Saw Seen Seeing To see

Main verb and Auxiliary (helping Verb)
Main verb is the major verb that tells us about the action, where as auxiliary is the helping verb that supports the main verb.

Examples

  1. He has done his job. (has is auxiliary and done is main verb).
  2. They have understood the matter. (have is auxiliary and understood is main verb).

Auxiliaries (Operators) and Modal Operators
Auxiliaries (Operators)

Remember, there is the great difference between Auxiliaries (Operators) and Modal Operators. Auxiliaries (Operators) are those verbs which negative is made without the help of any other word. You can just use not with it as are is the auxiliary and its negative is made by using not with it (are not) whereas this is not the case in main verbs. Jump is the main verb and you cannot say jump not. Instead you have to use does not or don't jump and doesn't and don't is auxiliary. There is one more difference that operators have all six forms like other main verbs. Like, do, does, did, done, doing and to do.

Modal Operators
Modal Operators are those verbs which have no only one or two forms.

Examples

  1. May, might
  2. can, could
  3. must
  4. ought to
  5. will, would
  6. should

Transitive and Intransitive verbs

Transitive Verbs
Transitive verbs are those verbs in which verbal action transfers to object.

Examples

  1. He kicked the ball (the verbal action kicking is transferred to ball).
  2. I am knocking at the door (knocking which is verb is transferred to the door).

Intransitive Verbs
Intransitive verbs are those verbs in which verbal action doesn’t transfer to the object.

Examples

  1. He arrived in the market (arriving doesn’t effect market).
  2. I am going to school (going doesn’t effect school).